Mitotyping Technologies

Legal Resources

Critical Reading

To prepare our clients for courtroom testimony, we recommend that all attorneys read the article Holland MM and Parsons TJ (1999) Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis: validation and use for forensic casework. Forensic Science Review 11:21-50. We will then discuss the articles with you in depth to prepare for trial. There is no charge for any phone consultation of this type.


We also recommend an online mtDNA tutorial, which can be found as a separate module within an interactive tutorial titled "Principles of Forensic DNA of Officers of the Court" at


Mitochondrial DNA Databases

A mitochondrial DNA database for North America is found at This excellent database is maintained by The Institute for Legal Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck.


Statistical Calculations

For an introduction to the calculations and their intrepretation, read the article Holland MM and Parsons TJ (1999) Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis: validation and use for forensic casework. Forensic Science Review 11:21-50.


Previous Courtroom Rulings

The following link will connect the user to previous written courtroom rulings on mitochondrial DNA at both the state and federal level.


Past and Current Mitotyping staff members have testified in the following states:

Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota,Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, and West Virginia.


We have testified in admissibility proceedings (Daubert/Frye/Harper/Rimmasch) in California, Washington, Florida, Georgia, Michigan, New York, Colorado, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and in three federal jurisdictions (District of Columbia; New York City; Columbus, Ohio).

Testimony Foundation Questions

We have provided a basic set of foundation questions for mitochondrial DNA testimony. Cases will have different requirements, so we encourage website viewers to adapt these questions to their needs.


Jury Education

Jury education is critical when this technology is presented in court. Mitotyping uses five basic overhead transparencies/slides during testimony for jury education (transparencies courtesy of the FBI's DNA Unit II). A basic tutorial takes about 10 minutes and emphasizes the differences between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA typing.


Download Mitochondrial DNA Testimony Questions


News - Mitotyping Technologies

Recent News:

SoftGenetics purchases Assets of Mitotyping Technologies, promising return to singular focus on leading edge service and technology.

Read more>>


Yeti project Completed!

It wasn’t human but it was fun! Proceedings of Royal Society B. Thanks to Dr. Bryan Sykes for asking us to participate.



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Mitotyping Technologies, LLC
2565 Park Center Blvd. Suite 200 • State College, Pennsylvania, USA 16801
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